Cyclosporine Eye Drops
Ocular Side Effects of Cyclosporine Eye Drops
The most common adverse event are:
1- Ocular burning.
2- Conjunctival hyperemia or Red Eye.
3- Ocular discharge.
4- Epiphora and excessive tearing.
5- Eye pain.
6- Stinging,Burning and foreign body sensation.
7- Itchy Eye.
Systemic Side Effects
Potential side effects associated with systemic use of it are the increase incidence of:
1- B-cell lymphoma.
2- Interstitial pneumonitis.
3- Opportunistic infections like herpes simplx virus and candida and pneumocystic organisms.
4- Renal tubular necrosis.
1- The main indication of Cyclosporine is to increase tear production in patients with Keratoconjunctivitis sicca or dry eye syndrome.
2- It can also be used in patients with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis.
3- Recent studies showed that it can be used to decrease the recurrence of pterygium after the primary surgical removal.
4- Treatment of corneal subepithelial infiltrates in patients with keratoconjunctivitis due to adenovirus.
5- Peripheral Non infectious corneal ulcer due to auto-immune diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, psoriatic corneal ulcers and Mooren's corneal ulceration.
6- Patients who had corneal grafts and required long-term anti-inflammatory medications. Corticosteroid eye drops are usually used in these patients but there are some potential side effects and complications of corticosteroid eye drops such as Steroid-induced glaucoma, Poor wound healing, formation of cataract and increase the incidence of corneal infection.
Cyclosporine has these advantages over corticosteroid eye drops:
- Doesn't increase the incidence of corneal infection because it doesn't increase viral replication and doesn't inhibit phagocytosis which is very important mechanism against bacteria.
- Has no effects on intraocular pressure.
- Has no effects on Corneal wound healing.
- Doesn't increase the incidence of cataract formation.
You have to know that FDA approved Cyclosporine Eye drops for the treatment of dry eyes and all the other indications are still under clinical trials which so far showed positive results.